CHAPTER 12 Dwadasho Adhyaya -The Path of Absolute Devotion

  • The chapter discusses the devotion and the worshiping undertaken by various devotees of the lord in various manifestations of the God .the chapter focuses on the feature as explained by lord Krishna of the   different kinds of devotees who pay their obeisance to the different incarnations of the god in their own way. The emotional as well as devotional attachment to the kind of god men worship comes to that form of the god on account of their trust, experience and the loyalty to the god that they worship. The men kind ahs made it convenient   to select their own form of the gods that they worship. Some of them worship god in his incarnation form and some of them worship the formless gods. But each section of the devotees develop their emotional, cerebral and psychological attachments to the god they  pay respects to. The whole chapter has thus been rightly named the path of absolute devotion.

Arjuna asks the lord Krishna,

Evam satat yukata ye bhaktaasatvaam paryupaaste

Ye chapyaksharm vyaktam Teshaam ke yog vittamaa (1)

“Pray, lord   you tell me! Who is a better devotee from amongst the two kinds of steadfast devotees who pray for your favors? The ones, who worship with complete devotion by singing hymns in your praises, meditate upon your incarnation of the personal form. Or is it those of the others who staedfastedly worship the interpersonal form of the god in its formlessness. Amongst both these devotees which follower has the better enlightenment of yoga?”

Mayyaa aaveshay mano ye maam nitya yukata upaasate

Shradhayaa paryopetaaste me yuktatmaa mataa (2)

Lord Krishna said,

“The persons who have single mindedly devoted themselves to my worship. They consistently sing hymns in my praise and who worship the incarnated form of me as the supreme god with complete dedication, such persons are the most beloved to me amongst all the yogis”.

Ye twaaksharm nordeshayam vyaktam paryupaaste

Sarvatragam chintayam ch koot sathamchalam dhruvam (3)

Sanniyamaye indiriyagramam saravatra sambuddhya

Te praapnuvanti maamev sarva bhoot hite rataa (4)

“ But those of the humans who are able to control all their sensualities  and senses , devote themselves fully to the singing praises of, the unchangeable, formless, eternal lord  of the universe and are involved into the universal welfare of the  beings , such    equipoised devotees  ultimately attain me and they get integrated into me only”.

Kalesho adhiktar sateshaam vayakta aasakata chetsaam

Avayaktaa hi gati durkham deha vadbhir vaapayate (5)

Those humans who believe and have devotion in the formless, unmanifested and impersonal God have to work very hard to attain and reach their God because they can attain the comprehension of the unmanifested celestial spirit with greater difficulty only”.

Ye tu sarvaani karmaani mayi sannayasay matparaa

Ananyaenaiv yogen maam dhyaayant upaasate (6)

Teshaam aham samudhtartaa maratyu sansaaram saagraat

Bhavaami nachiraat parth mayay aaveshit chetsaam (7)

“But all those devotees who worship me as the Supreme Truth, and offer their unswerving devotion to me and sing my praises relentlessly as the Supreme God, I become their savior and grant them enlightenment and their emancipation and deliverance from the mortal world of humans”.

Mayayaev mana aadhatasav mayee budhdhim niveshaya

Nivasishayasi mayayaev ata udharavam na sanshaya (8)

“You should also oh Arjuna! Devote your mind and heart to me and then thereafter you will reside in me and I have no doubts on this”.

Atha chittam samaadhaatum na shaknoshi mayee sthiram

Abhyaas yogen tatto maam ichhiaptum dhananjaya (9)

“In case you are not adept in the ways to establish me in your mind and heart permanently   you should practice yoga and wish for attaining me”.

Abhaayaase apay samartho asi matkaram parmo bhava

Madarthmapi karmaani kurvansidhim vaa pasayasi (10)

“If you are incapable of undertaking the yoga practice too then you should be ready to do your karma for me. This way by attending to the actions assigned by me to you, you shall be able to attain me and reach enlightenment of the Supreme Truth”.

Athai tadapay shaktoasi kartum madhyogam aashrita

Sarav karam phal tyaagam tatta kuru yata aatamvaan (11)

“If you do not have the capability to practice yoga for my attainment, then you should exercise complete control over your mind and heart    and give up all kinds of   attachment to the fruits of the actions undertaken by you”.

Shreyo hi gyaanam abhyaasaa gyaanaad dhayaanam vishiyate

Dhayaanaat karam phal tyaagastaayaaga ichhanti niratarntaram (12)

“The transcendental enlightenment of the scripture is superior to the mere ritualistic practice, and meditating upon me is better than the mere attainment of the knowledge about me, and the renouncing the attachment in the results of all kinds of action undertaken is better than the meditating upon me. Renunciation leads to immediate attainment of the spiritual peace”.

Adavashetaa sarav bhootaanaam maitra karuna aiv cha

Niramamo nirankaar sam dhuka sukha kshami (13)

Santushta satatam yogi yataatamaa dradh nischaya

Madhya arpita mano budhdhiryo madbhaktaa sa me priya (14)

“   Such person who is free from hatred towards other fellow beings, is friendly and empathetic  , is free from any kind of false ego and pride, and is equipoised in all kinds of situations and   is of  forgiving nurture towards the wrong doers, , and such a person who is always content within himself, , has the body and the mind under complete control, is steadfast in his devotion in me, such a person who has complete devotion towards me , is dear to me”.

Yasmaano dwijate loko lokaanno dwijate ch ya

Harshaamarshabhyo dwegaimoorkto ya sa cha mai priya (15)

“ such a devotee    towards whom no one gets agitated, and the one  who does not get aggressive on others, and the one who is free from the  joy, jealousy, fear, and anxiety, is the dear to me’.

Anapeksha shuchidarksh udaaseeno gata vayath

Sarva aarambh parityaagi yo, adbhakta sa mei priya (16)

“Such a person who is free of all desires is pure externally and internally, wise, and free from bias and is free from any kind of sorrow, who has renounced all attachment   to all kinds of actions, such devotee is dear to me”.

Yo na harshayati na dweshati na shochati na kaadkshati

Shubha ashubh parityaagi bhakti maanaya sa mei priya (17)

“Such a devotee who never rejoices, nor does he ever shows remorse, neither dislikes nor desires, and who ha renounced the good and the evil deeds, such a devoted person is dear to me”.

Sama shatrun cha mitrai cha tatha maan apmaanyo

Sheetosan sukhdu kheshu sama sangdi vivarjita (18)

Tulya nindaa stuti maurni santushto yein kain Chita

Aniketa sthir matirbhakti maanme priyo nara (19)”

“The one who treats the friend and the foe at the same level, and remains the same in honour or the disgrace, in heat or cold, in pleasure and troubles and is free from attachment, the one who looks at the praise and the criticism indifferently, who is introvert and quite, is content within himself, is unattached towards the place where he dwells, such an equanimous devoted person is dear to me”.

Ye tu dharmryamrit midam yathoktam paryupaaste

Shraddhaanaa matparmaa bhakta aaste ateev me priya (20)

“But a devotee of mine, who full of devotion, sets me as the supreme goal of the attainment and follows the moral values that have been mentioned just by me, such a person is very dear to me”.


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