RSS

Chapter 17 Saptodasho Adhyaya -Three Modes of Devotion and Faith

     In the previous chapter lord has spoken about  the demonic    characteristics of lust anger and greed  to Arjuna and as an  advice he had instructed him to follow the path set up scriptures   in leading the pious life that can take him closer to the supreme truth  and he can get integrated with the supreme soul of the lord. In the previous chapter lord had advised Arjuna that the worship undertaken by way of the fulfilling a desire does not yield the   necessary results i.e., it may not take the protagonists closer to the supreme truth and result into emancipation of the soul form the mortal world . Arjuna had been advised by the lord Krishna that any   selfless   activity undertaken for larger universal welfare and as prescribed by the scriptures     can definitely result into eh freedom from the vicious cycle of the mortal world.   Arjuna   in order to understand as to what happens to those   persons who may not be familiar    with the   modes of the worship and devotion as advised by the  scriptures asks lord Krishna    as to what is  the mode the people adopt who do not follow the scriptures.

Says he to lord Krishna,

Ye shaastra vidhimutsrajay   Yajante shradhayaanvitaa

Teshaam nishthaa tu kaa Krishna satav maaho rajastam (1)

“Oh lord Krishna!  Pray tell me what is the mode of the devotion of those persons who undertake spiritual practices without following the laid down rules by the scriptures. Do they  fall under the satava mode, the rajas mode or do they come under the tamas mode i.e., the modes of goodness, passion or the ignorance?”

Lord Krishna    who had referred to these modes in the previous   chapter, thus satisfies his disciple’s query,

Trividhaa bhavati shradhaa dehinam sa svabhaavjaa

Saatvikaa raajsi chaiv taamsi cheti taam shrunu (2)

“Hey Arjuna! . There exists three kinds of devotion   amongst the embodied   souls which is acquired by the soul from the materialistic nature   i.e.,     satavik, pure hearted and full of goodness, the Rajasi-the full of passion, and the taamsi- the one that is   of demonic nature. You should now hear about these from me”.

Satva anurupaa sarvasaya shradhaa bhavati bharat

Shraadhaam yogyam purusho yo yachshddh SA aiv SA (3)

“All devotees possess the devotion as per their internal emotional built up. Each devotee represents the kind of person as per the devotion that he has”.

Yajante saatvikaa devaanyaksharkshaansi rajasaa

Pretaan bhootaganaansh chaanya Yajante taamsaa janaa (4)

“The saatvikaa (the pious persons) worship the celestial gods, the rajas (the passionate persons) worship supernatural rulers and demons; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits”.

Ashaastra vihitam ghoram tapayante ye tapo janaa

Dambha ahamkara sanyuktaa kaamraaga balaanvitaa (5)

Karshayant shareerastham bhootagraam chetsa

Maam chaivaant shareerastham taanvidhyaa asur nishchyaan (6)

“Those persons who practice severe austerities without following the prescription   as laid down by the holy   scriptures are full of hypocrisy and egotism. They are incited by the power of desire and attachment. They senselessly torture the elements in their body.  They torment   me the supreme truth that dwells within their physical body.   You should know these ignorant persons to be of demonic nature”. 

Ahaarsdatavapi sarvasaya trividho bhavati priya

Yagyastapasatathaa daanam Teshaam bhedmimam sharnu (7)

“Just as the food we prefer is of three types depending on the   kind of nature we all possess, the same way sacrifices, meditation and the charity are of three types. You should listen to the differences among stall three of them”.

Aayu satava balaa aarogyaa sukha priti vividharnaa

Rasyaa snigdhaa sthiraa hahyaa aahaaraa satavik priya (8)

“ The pure natured  persons  who live in the mode of goodness (saatvikaa) like the foods that promote long life, virtue, strength ,health, happiness, and joy “.

Katvamla lavnaatyushanan tikshan ruksha vidaaheen

Aahaaraa raajasasyeshtaa dukha shoka mayapradaa (9)

“The persons of passionate nature (who live in the mode of rajoguna) like the foods that are bitter, sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry, and burning.  Such foods cause pain, grief, and disease”.

Yaatyaamam gatarasam pooti paryushitam cha yata

Uchchhishtimapi chaamedhyam bhojanam tamas priyam (10)

“ such people who live in the mode of ignorance (tamas)like the  stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten, refuses, and impure (such as meat and alcohol)   kinds of food”.

Aphlaa kadkshibhir yagyo vidhi drashtu ya ijayate

Yashtayavmeveti mana samaadhaay sa saatvikaa (11)

“The   selfless service undertaken by the persons who do it without attachments   and take it as the sacred duty enjoined by the scriptures   is done    in the mode of goodness (saatvikaa)”.

Abhisandhaay tu phalam dambha arthmapi chaiv yata

Ijayate bharat shreshath tam yagyam viddhi rajasam (12)

“The   service that is devoid of self-interest and undertaken as a mere formality for a show off and with attachment to the fruit of the service rendered is the service done in the mode of passion (rajoguna)”.

Vidhiheenam srashtaanam mantra heenam dakshinaam

Shraddhaavirhitam   yagyam taamsam parichakshyate (13)

“ the selfless service that is done without following the scriptures and in which no  offerings to the gods   offered  no foods are   to the participants  are distributed, a service that is performed without the chanting of the hymns, the holy mantras and without the faith and the gift is done in the mode of ignorance and darkness (tamas)”.

Deva dwij guru praagay poojanam shauchmaarjavam

Brahamcharayam himsaa ch Shaareeram tapa uchchayate (14)

“The worship of the celestial gods, the priests, the teachers, and of the enlightened persons, purity, simplicity, celibacy and non violence are the physical austerity of the body”.

Anudweg karam vaakyam satyam priya hitam cha yata

Sawaadhayaay abhayasanam vaadmayam tapa uchchayate (15)

“The words that are spoken without aggression, are non offensive, are pleasant beneficial and are used as an exercise for studying and chanting the name of the Supreme Truth is known as the austerity of the word”.

Mana praasaad saumayatavam maun maatam vinigraha

Bhaav sanshudhi rityettapo maan samuchayate (16)

“The expression of the serenity of the mind, gentleness, the equanimity,, the control of the self , and the purity of the internal emotions is called the austerity of the thought”.

Shradhayaa paryaa tapantam tapastantrividham narai

Aphlaakaaadkshibhiryuktai saatvikam parichyakshyate (17)

“All the three kinds of austerities performed by the enlightened ones with full dedication and faith, without the attachment to the fruit are performed in the mode of goodness (satva guna)”.

Satkaar maan pujaartham tapo dambhen chaiv yata

Kriyate tadih proktam rajasam chalam dhruvam (18)

“The meditation that is undertaken  for gaining respectability, honour, and worship and to fulfill for some  other motive  of selfish interest  by way of a mere show off and  as a pretense yields an uncertain and periodic results is said to belong to the category of the mode of passion (rajoguna)”.

Moodh graahaenaatmano yatpidyaa Kriyate tapa

Parasyotsaadnaarthm vaa tattam samudaahatam (19)

“The austerity that is undertaken by way of obstinacy, by way of self torture of the mind and the body, or with an intention to do harm to others has been called the austerity in the mode of darkness of the mind and ignorance (taamsi nature)”.

Daatavaymiti yaddaanam diyate anupkaarane

Deshe kaale cha paatre cha taddaanam saatvikam samaratam (20)

“ a person who does charity   with the emotions that  giving charity is a duty ,and gives it without expressing anything in return     at the right place, time and to  the  deserving is considered to eb a charity done  in the mode of    goodness (satva guna)”

Yatu pratayupkaararthm phalam uddheshya vaa puna

Deeyate cha parikalishatham taddaanam rajasam samaratam (21)

“But any charity done   unwillingly with the intentions of getting something in return, and in expectations is considered to be a charity in the mode of passion (rajoguna)”.

Adeshkaale yadyaanm paatrebhayashch Deeyate

Asatkratamav gyaatam tattam samudaahatam (22)

“A charity that is done without showing due respects and with an intention of ridiculing the receiver, at the wrong place and time to an unworthy person is a charity considered to be done in the darkness of ignorance (tamoguna)”.

Om tatsiditi nirdesho brahaman stri vidha samarat

Brahaman aasten vedaashch vihitaa puraa (23)

“Om, the spirit   and the supreme truth and all pervading   are the names of the person with divine transcendental qualities   . Out of the   supreme truth, the vedas, the brahaman, and the yagya have been created”.

Tasmaadomityu daaharatay yagya daan tap kriya

Pravatarante vidhaanoktaa satatam braham vaadinaam (24)

“That is why all acts of charity, of austerity and acts of sacrifice performed by the enlightened persons begin with the auspicious word, “om”, which is the name of the God, the supreme truth”.

Tadityanabhi sandhaay phalam yagya tapa kriya

Daan kriyaashch vividhaa kriyante moksham kaadkshibhi (25)

“All this that exists in the universe belongs to the supreme truth known as tatta, and the seekers of the emancipation   from the mortal life perform various types of sacrifice, charity, and austerity by uttering “He is the  supreme truth” without expecting  a reward”.

Sadbhaave saadhubhaave cha sadityet prayujayate

Prashaste karamni tatha sachchhabad parth yujayate (26)

“Supreme Truth” is the name of the God that is used in the sense of the reality and the goodness, and in supremeness. And hey Arjuna! The word Truth is also used in the auspicious acts that men perform”.

Yagse tapasi daane cha stithi saditi chochayate

Karam chaiva tadthirayam saditayev vaabhidheeyate (27)

“And the faith expressed in the sacrifice, charity and the austerity is also called the supreme truth and is treated as the action performed for the God is the Ultimate supreme truth”.

Ashraddhyaa hutam datam tapastapatam kratam ch yatt

Asditya uchayate parth na cha tatpretaya no ieha (28)

“Hey   parth! Any act performed without faith and devotion whether it is charity, sacrifice or austerity or any other action is of no use   as it is   all considered untruth and holds no value either in this life or the life beyond”.

 

 

 

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