Chapter 6 Shashtho Adhyaya-The Path of Meditation
The lord Krishna begins his discourse to Arjuna again. He professes confirmation of his statement when he commences the lecture by approving the path of performing ones duty selflessly and by not attaching any kind of expectations from the karma so undertaken.
But the lord is aware that his devotee may not have fully understood and comprehended the intricacies of lord’s sermon. He would not have been able to fathom the distinction between the performance of the action and meditating on an action and then undertaking the performance. The lord has been mentioning both the courses, as the paths to the attainment of the supreme truth. Hence he now wants to explain the difference between the renunciation of an ascetic yogi and the self control of the body and the mind by a karamyogi ,in order to make Arjuna his favorite disciple understand the subtle differences between the path of karma yoga and the renunciation based sankhya yoga.
The Lord Begins, “Anasharita karamphalam karayam karama karoti ya
Sa sanyaasi ch yogi ch na niragniarna chaakriya” (1)
“A karam yogi who does not perceive the results of the action taken by him as meant for his personal benefit and he performs his duty that is expected of him without attachment to the fruits of the action performed, such a person is a renunciant. And it is not necessary that the one only who relinquishes fire is a renunciant nor is the one a yogi who has renounced the action of the worldly affairs”.
“Yam sanyaasamiti praahuyorgam tam vidhi pandava
Na hyasanyasatasankalpo yogi bhavati kaschana” (2)
Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna the difference and the similarities that prevail between the yoga and the sanyasa by telling him that,
“O Arjuna, you should know that yoga is a kind of renunciation only . You should, understand that no one who has not given up attachment to the senses and renounced them can be called an ascetic or a yogi ’.
The lord now educates Arjuna on the methodology of attaining karam Yoga,
“Aroorookshornumo yogam karam karanamuchayate
Yogaroodhasaya tasayaiv shama karanamuchayate” (3)
Karma-yoga is said to be the route of emancipation and enlightenment for the sage person who desires to attain yoga through meditation or the composure of mind. And for the one who has attained yoga, the calm mind becomes the means of Self-enlightenment. The person attains yogic perfection when he or his all the desires for sensual pleasures have been eliminated and the attachments to the fruits of duty performed have been relinquished by him in its true sense”.
The lord continues,
“Yadaa hi nainindiriya aratheshu Na karamsawanushajjate
Sarvaa sankalap sanyaasi yogarodhsatadochayate” (4)
“ The moment when there exists no attachment to the sensual desires , nor to the fruits of the action taken, during such a moment the person who has relinquished all worldly desires can be said to have attained perfect yoga or the enlightenment of the supreme truth”.
The lord in a way is persuading and motivating Arjuna to take to the path of such karam yoga or the karamyoga devoid of any kind of attachments to the fruit inherent within the action undertaken.
“Uddhredaatama naatmaanam naatmaanam vassadayet
Aatmaiv hyaatamano bandhuraatmaiv ripuraataman” (5)
“An enlightened person will have to seek self salvation from the sea of the worldly affairs without himself getting pulled into the mire of worldly affairs again, as the person himself is either the enemy of the self or a friend of the self”.
Thus in a way the lord sermonizes that the person must exercise control over one’s own mind in such a way that the mind becomes a friend of the person in the process of seeking salvation from the worldly affairs and that the mind of the person acts as a true friend and it elevates the person to the level of getting sublimed into the god’s truth. The person should ensure that the mind does not act as his foe and degrades him by pulling him back into the murky sea of sensual desires.
The lord says, “Bandhu raatmaatmana satasaya yainaa tamaivaatamanaa jita
Annatamanastu shatrutave varate taatamaiva shatruvata” (6)
“The person, who has exercised control over the body through the organization of his mind and the senses, is a true friend of his own self and the one who has not been able to exercise control over his body through the command of his mind and the senses, such a person becomes the enemy of his own self.
“Jitaatamana praashantasaya paramatma samaahita
Sheetosan sukhdu kheshu tatha maanaapamaanayo (7)
“A person who does not get affected by the winter or the summer, by the pleasure or the pain, in honor or dishonor and maintains his tranquility, such a self disciplined person has attained the enlightenment of the Supreme truth within his soul and the supreme truth resides within his enlightenment”.
“Gyan vigyaan triptaatma kootastho vijitinderiya
Yukta ityuchayate yogi samaloshtaashamkaachana” (8)
A person who has mastered the internal knowledge and has adopted the scientific spirit and the one who is free from any kind of bias and the one who has exercised complete control over his senses and desires, and the one for whom the earth, the gold or the stone are of no value or hold same value, such a person is a true yogi and he is said to have achieved the true enlightenment of the supreme truth”.
“Suhanmitra yurdaaseen madhyasath dwesahya bandhushu
Saadhushwapi ch paapeshu samabudhi virshiyite” (9)
“The one who remains impartial towards the well-wishers, friends, and the foes, companions, and the unknowns, the religious and the sinners, such a person is considered to be a superior person”.
Yogi Yuajeet satatamaatmaanam rahasi stitha
Ekaaki yatchitaatma niraasheer parigraha’ (10)
A yogi who has exercised complete control over his mind and the senses and has attained freedom from all desires and the sense of ownership should contemplate and meditate upon the Supreme Being through the soul by remaining in the solitude ’.
Shucho deshe pratishthaapaya sthir maasanamaataman
Naatyuchachhitam naatinicham chailajin kushotaram”(11)
“He should set up his seat on such an earth where neither it is too low nor too high and where the seat has been covered by the grass, the deer skin and a cloth , on such a place he should sit in solitude and meditate upon me “.
Tatraiekaagaram mana kratavaa yatachitte indiriyakriya
Upvishayaasane yujajayaadhyogamaatama vishudhdhaye” (12)
He should sit on this asana and by exercising the control on his heart and mind he should be practicing yoga and meditating upon the self purification of the soul”.
Samam kaayashirogrivam dhharayanchalam sthir
Samprekshaya naasikaagram savam dishshchaanava lokayan” (13)
One should sit in the motionless state and in a steady posture by keeping the waist, spine, chest, neck, and head straight, and he should fix the gaze and mind steadily on the front of the nose, without looking around in any other direction ”.
Prashaanta atamaa vigatabhi brahamchaari varate stithata
Mana sanyamaya machchito yukata aaseeta matpara” (14)
He should practice celibacy, fearlessness, and equanimity and peace of mind and he should think and meditate upon me as the attainment of the supreme truth”.
Yujajanevam sadaatmaanam yogi niyatamaanasa
Shantim nirvaanaparamaanam matasansathaa madhigachchati” (15)
Such a yogi who has exercised complete control over his mind and whose soul is ever immersed into my delight of the supreme truth attains the supreme truth and gets assimilated into me”.
Naatayashantastu yogoasti Na chaikanta manashanata
Na chaati swapansheelasaya jaagrato naiva chaarjuna” (16)
Hey Arjuna! This yoga is not meant for those who eat too much nor is it meant for those who do not eat neither is it meant for those who are very talkative, and nor is it possible for those who remain always awake” .
Yukata haarvihaarasya yukata cheshatasaya karamsu
Yukata swapanaav bodhasaya yogi bhavati dukhaha’ (17)
The yoga that can remove all kinds of sorrows and pain is meant for those who socialize, and keep trying by their capacity of working hard and for those who indulge into necessary rest and sleep and for those who remain awake.
Yadaa viniyatam Chita maatamanayevaavtishathate
Nisaparaha sarva kaamebhyo yukata ityuchayate tadaa” (18)
Eventually when the controlled mind becomes steadfast in the supreme truth and attains emancipation from all kinds of desires, at such a stage a person is said to have attained his perfection in the yoga.
Yathaa deepo nivaasatasatho nedagate sopamaa samarataa
Yogino yatachitasaya yujjato yogamaatamana’ (19)
“Just as a lamp does not flicker in a place where there is no wind, the same way a yogi meditates on the supreme truth by his winning over the mind of all desires’.
“Yatroparamate chittam niruddham yogsevya
Yatr chaivatmanaatmaanam pashayaannaatmani tushayati”(20)
The mind is disciplined by the practice of yoga and it becomes steady and focused into the supreme truth that is the enlightened position of the spiritually content mind that believes in the supreme God and feels his benevolence everywhere”.
‘Sukhamaatayantikam yatada buddhigrahayamatindirayam
Veti Yatr na chaivaayam stithshachalati tatavata” (21)
“It is that transcendental situation in which one feels infinitely blessed by being in the presence of God the supreme truth and having attained this transcendental bliss the person remains into the blessed trance forever without ever getting detached from the supreme being “
Yam labdhavaa chaaparam laabham manayate naadhikam manayate naadhikam tat
Yasmin stithto na dukhen gurunaapi vichaalayate”(22)
“The attainment and the enlightenment of the Supreme God are perceived as the greatest of all truths and enlightenments and the yogi remains steadfast into his faith even in the face of the direst of calamities”.
“Tam vidhayaadadukhasam yogviyogam yogasangyitam
Sa nishachayain yokatavayo yogo anirvinanachetsaa’ (23)
“This state of the mystical tranquility of the mind that has overcome all kinds of sorrow and pain is the kind of yoga that one must acquire and such yoga is practiced in complete faith and determination without being tired of it and without feeling stressed out of the pressure of any kind on the soul”.
Sankalapa prabhavaankamaansatayakta sarvaanasheshat
Mansaivai indiriyagramam viniyamaya samantata (24)
“Such a tranquility of the mind can be achieved by abandoning all the selfish desires and by restraining the senses by exercising complete control over the mind “.
Shanai shanairoopar medbudhayaa dhriti grahityaa
Aatmasansatham mana kratavaa naa kichidapi chintayet (25)
“The tranquility of the mind can be achieved by regular practice and by remaining steadfast into the Lord and by not deviating ever from and meditating on anything else”.
Yato yato nishcharati manas chanchalam stitharam
Tat stato niyamaitdaatmanyev vasham nayet (26)
One should abandon and remove all those subjects that can lead away the unstable mind from the task of meditating on the supreme truth, and bring the focus of the mind gently back to reflect on the supreme truth only”.
Prashanta manasam honam yoginam sukhamutamam
Upaiti shantarajasam braham bhootam kalamsham (27)
“A person who is at peace with himself and the one who is free from any kind of ill feelings and the sin, who has attained tranquility, such a person attains the celestial bliss of having attained the supreme truth”.
Yunjanevam sadaatmaanam yogi vigatakalamash
Sukhen braham sansparasham atyantam sukhamashnute (28)
“Such a pure and sinless yogi whose soul and the spirit is always engrossed and immersed into the supreme truth enjoys the celestial bliss of the attainment of the enlightenment of the supreme truth”.
Sarvbhootasatha maatmaanam sarv bhootaani chaatamani
Eekshate yog yoktaatmaa saravatra samdarshana (29)
“ such a yogi who has been assimilated into the supreme truth and as has attained the supreme bliss of the omnipresence of the supreme truth perceives every soul as the abode of the supreme being and the supreme being as the abode of the souls of all kinds “.
Yo maa pashayati saravatra sarv cha mayi pashayato
Tasayaaham na pranshyaami sa cha me na pranshayati (30)
“Such an enlightened and blessed person who can perceive my presence in all beings and can perceive the souls of living beings within my soul of Vasudeva, I am never invisible to such an enlightened person and nor does he ever get away from my mind. I am always present for him and he remains ever within my heart and soul”
The lord says that a perpetual communication can be established between him and the enlightened soul, who can perceive him in all living beings and can feel the presence of all living beings in the existence of God himself. In other words the all souls that live on this earth are nothing but the personification of the Supreme truth itself and both the supreme truth and the living souls abide in each other. One has to be blessed with the perceivable inner enlightenment to visualize the presence of the supreme truth in every living and the non living being on this earth.
Sarv bhootsatitham yo mam bhajayate katavmaa sthita
Sarvathaa vartamaanoapi sa yogi mayee vartate (31)
“The person who worships me as the Supreme Being abiding in all beings, such a person abides in me even in all kinds of situations “.
Atmau pamyen saravatra samam pashayati yo Arjuna
Sukham vaa yadi vaa dukham sa yogi parmo mata (32)
O Arjuna, such a yogi who regards all other beings likes his own self and the one who feels the pain and pleasures of all others like his own and treats every pain and pleasure with equanimity, such a yogi is considered to be the most perfect yogi”.
Yoayam yogsatavayaa prokta saamyen madhusudana
Etasaya aham na pashyaami chanchal tavaatstithitim sthiram (33)
“Oh madhusudana”, said Arjuna, “ you have mentioned about the yoga as being in the equanimity of the mind, but due to the restless nature of my mind I do not perceive the steady state of mind”.
Chanchalam hi manaa Krishna pramaathi balavadadradham
Tasayaaham nigraham manye vaayoriv sudushkaram (34)
“Because oh lord Krishna! This mind is very unstable, and is of tumultuous nature, rigid and is very powerful and to control this mind for me is almost as difficult as the stopping of the breathing activity by me”.
Asanshayam mahabaaho mano dunirgraham chalam
Abhyaasen tu kayunteya vairagayan cha grahate (35)
Said lord Krishna, “undoubtedly oh Arjuna! This mind is very mischievous and it is difficult to bring it under control but oh kaunteya! This control over the mind can be achieved by the practice of the contemplation and the detachment “.
Asanyataatamanaa yogo dushpraap iti me mati
Vashyaatamanaa tu yatataa shakyo vaaptumupaayata (36)
“I am of the opinion that yoga is not easy for a person whose mind is not under his control and it is very easy for the one who has been able to tame his mind and bring it under control by striving through the appropriate means of meditation”.
Arjuna says to Krishna,
Ayati sharadhayopeyeto yogachallitmanas
Apraapaya yogasansidhim kam gatim Krishna gachhati (37)
“Oh lord Krishna! any such devotee who has full faith in yoga, but is not in a position to exercise restraint of the mind and senses, and whose heart and mind have been deviated from the yoga pray tell me as to what kind of deliverance can be attained by such a person who does not get assimilated into the supreme truth on account of his deviation from the supreme”.
Kachchinno bhaya vibharashatashchhinna bhramiv nashayati
Apratishtho mahabaaho vimoodho brahamana pathi (38)
“Oh mahabaaho! Such a person who has lost both the celestial and the worldly pleasures in pursuit of the supreme truth does not get disillusioned from both the pursuits and gets destroyed like the dispersing waterless clouds, without a support and due to the lack of the heavenly faith”.
Ettanne sanshayam Krishna chhetuma rahasya sheshata
Tavadanaya sanshayasayasay chhetaa na hyup padhayate (39)
“Oh lord Krishna! You are the only one who has the wisdom to resolve this bewilderment of mine and no one else but you are the only one capable of removing this incomprehension of my mind”.
Said lord Krishna,
Parth naivaiha naamutra vinaashsatasaya vidhayate
Na hi kalyaan kratakshid durgatim taat gachhagati (40)
“Hey parth! Such a yogic person who is a devotee does not get disillusioned neither in this world nor in the world beyond, because any person who gets into transcendentalism for the attainment of the supreme truth does not get annihilated”.
Prapaya pushyakrataam lokaanushitavaa shaashvata samaa
Shuchinaam shreemtaan gehe yogbhrashto abhijayate (41)
“Such a person who has been deviated from the path of true yoga and the one, who has not been able to successfully and dedicatedly complete the task of a yogi, gets reborn into the house of pious and rich, after he has spent a good part of his life for many years in the benevolence of the heavenly bliss”.
Athavaa yoginaamev kule bhavati dheemtaam
Etaddhi durlabhataram loke janma yadidrasham (42)
“And the person who has abandoned the sensory pleasures of life and has become an ascetic of is born into the house of the enlightened yogis only. But attaining such a birth into the homes of the enlightened yogis is indeed a very rare feat to achieve”.
Tatra tam buddhisanyogam labhate pauravadehikam
Yatate cha tato bhooya sansidhau kurunandan (43)
“In that new incarnation such a person inherits the culture and the enlightenment obtained in the earlier life, and this person due to the positivity of the earlier traditions such a person rededicates himself and with yet greater intensity than the earlier times he or she strives to achieve the supreme truth and attain deliverance by way of assimilation into the supreme O Arjuna”.
Purvaabhayaasen tainaiv hivayate hayavashoapi sa
Jigyaasurpi yogasaya shabad brahamaativartate (44)
“Such a person who has failed in the previous birth gets instinctively engrossed into the supreme truth by virtue of the exercises of yogic meditation undertaken by him in his previous lives. Even the ardent student of yoga and the enquirer attains the union with God and surpasses those who perform Vedic rituals and violate the act of undertaking action without the desire of the fruit”.
Prayatanaa dhayat maanastu yogi sanshudha kinvisha
Anek janma saniddhastato yaati praan gatim (45)
‘But the yogi who makes every effort passionately and sincerely attains emancipation and ablution from the transgressions of all many of the previous incarnations and obtains the integration into the supreme truth and attains deliverance”.
Tapasavi bhayoadhiko yogi gyaanibhayoapi matoadhika
Karmibhayashchaadhiko yogi tasmaadhyogi bhavaarjuna (46)
“A yogi devoted to the meditation of the supreme is superior to the ascetic. The yogi is superior to the scholars dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge. The yogi is superior to those who indulge into the rituals with the intentions and desires of attaining the fruits of their action. Hence, O Arjuna, you should become a yogi”.
Yoginaampi sarveshaan madagatena antratmaanaa
Shradhaavaan bhajate yo maam sa mei yuktatamo mata (47)
“And the yogi out of all the yogis who meditates upon me with greater faith and devotion of his internal soul is the one who is most endearing to me and who in my opinion is the superior most to all others”.