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Chapter 8 Ashtamo Adhyaya -The Spirit Eternal

          Human vision has always been limited  to what is visible to the naked eye   and at best a visionary perception of the lesser gods that he meditates upon to get his worldly desires fulfilled   and to ensure a smooth passage to the other world. It is only a few who can actually reach the true meaning of the eternal spirit the Brahma- the creator, the supreme truth. In this chapter  Arjuna  seeks answer to   basic seven queries that have arisen in his mind pertaining to the   mortal version of the human beings and their physical existence, the eternity of the spirit and the perpetuity of the supreme soul, the Brahma the creator of the universe , the karma, and the temporal spirits and the  relationships that exist between the creator and his creations  .

Thus begins Arjuna,   asking for the resolution to his queries from the lord Krishna,

Kim tadbraham Kim dhayaatam Kim karam purushotam

Adhibhootam ch Kim prokt madhidaivam kimuychayate (1)

“O Krishna! Who is the braham? What is Brahman? What is the self? What is karma? What is this physical manifestation? Who are the temporal beings? And who are the demi gods”.

Adhiyagya katham koatra deheasmina madhusudana

Praayaan kaale ch katham gyeoasi niyataatambhi (2)

“Who is the entity of   sacrifice   residing in   the body O Madhusudana (Krishna)? How can the mortals remember you at the time of their death?”

Lord Krishna thus resolves all queries of Arjuna,

Aksharam braham param savabhaavo adhyaatam muchayate

Bhoot bhaavodbhavkaro visaraga karam sangyita (3)

“The timeless and absolute Spirit (the eternal spirit) of the Supreme Being is also called Braham. The eternal nature is called adhyaatam, the self. Karma   is the action pertaining to the development of the material bodies of the living beings”

Adhibhootam ksharo bhava purushachadhi daivatam

Adhiyagyo ahvehamevaatra dehe dehabhrataam vara (4)

“Temporal beings are the different kinds of   extensions of the powers of the supreme truth and hey Arjuna, the superior being of the physical beings! I Vasudeva reside as the   omnipresent supreme truth in all physical bodies”.

 Antakaale ch maamev samara muktavaa kalevaram

Ya prayaati sa madbhaavam yaati naasatayatra sanshaya (5)

“Any living being who meditates upon me    as the Supreme Being at the time of his death ultimately achieves my supreme nature and gets integrated into the supreme truth. And there exist no uncertainty about it”.

Yam yam vaapi samaranbhaavam tayajayante kalevaram

Tam tamevaiti kaunteya sadaa tadbhaav bhaavita (6)

“Hey Arjuna the son of Kunti, you should know that    any unfulfilled objective or the mission of a human being that remains unachieved in the life time, comes to the fore of the mind of the human being at the time of his death and this thought that one remembers at the time of death and at the culmination of the life and the person achieves the same”.

Thus the lord says that a human being who has been meditating upon me all his life and yet has not been able to achieve deliverance from the mundane life and has not been able to get integrated with me the Supreme Truth , such a human being  can definitely attain my nature when such a person meditates upon me at the time of his soul  leaving the physical body and that such a soul ultimately gets assimilated into me only  .

Tasmaad sarveshu kaaleshu maamaanusamar yudhaya ch

Mayyaprit manobuddhir maame vaishasay sanshayam (7)

“Thus oh Arjuna, you should always meditate    upon me and fight this war of truth too. By completely surrendering yourself by the mind and spirit, you shall be able to attain me only and get integrated into my supreme truth”.

Abhyaas yog yukaten chetasa naanya gaaminaa

Param purusham divayam yaati partha anuchintanayan (8)

Oh partha!  It is the law of supreme nature that a human being who by practice of the yoga meditates upon the Supreme God, without any kind of deviation of the mind ultimately attains the Supreme God and becomes integrated with the supreme truth’.

Kavim puraan manushaasita ramanor niyaam smanusamredhya

Sartvasaya dhaataaram chintaya roopmaaditya varanam tamasa parastaat (9)

“Such a person who meditates upon me, the supreme power, the omniscient, the controller of all, the tinier than the tiniest and the mightier than the mightiest, the sustainer of all beings and the objects, the unthinkable and the inconceivable, the self shining and the luminous like the sun and the one who is beyond any ignorance, the transcendental, at the time of   his culmination of life with a steadfast mind such a person ultimately attains Me only”.

Praayaan kaale mansaachalen bhavatkyaa yukto yogabalen chaiva

Bharuvo mardhaye praan maaveshya samyak sa tam param purush mupaiti divayam (10)

“Such a   devoted person   even at the time of the conclusion of his life establishes the praan   into the middle of his eye brows by the power of his yoga and meditation, worships me with a pure heart and attains the divine supreme truth – the supreme God’.

Yadaksharam vedvido vadanti vishanti yadyatayo veetraagaa

Yadichhanto brahamcharayam charanti tatte padam sandgrahen pravakshye (11)

“ now I shall discuss  with you  in brief the process of attaining the supreme truth, which has been called as  indestructible by the intellectuals who know about vedaas, and   into which the ascetics free from the attachment  enter  and the kind of supreme position for which people lead a life of celibacy “

Sarva dwaaraani sanyamaya mano hradi nirudhaya ch

Mudhanay araadhaay aatamana praanmaastithto yog dharnaam (12)

Omityeka Aksharam braham vyaaharn maamnu samara

Ya prayaati tayajan deham sa yaati parmaam gatim (13)

“ when such a person controls all the senses and by focusing  his mind on the, supreme truth and the breathes in his cerebrum , engaged in yoga, meditates upon and chants the world om , the sound incarnation of the creator , and in other words meditating upon me , leaves his physical abode  , such a person attains the supreme abode”.

Ananya chetaa satatam yo mam samarati nitayasha

Tasyaaham sulabh parth nitya yuktasya yogina (14)

“But to the devotee who is ever meditating upon me regularly and constantly without any deviation, I am easily approachable and attainable”.

Maamu petya punarjanam dukhaalyam shashavatam

Naapanuvanti mahaatamaan sansiddhim parmam gatam (15)

Those of the devotees as have arrived at the supreme truth i.e., these great souls get integrated into me and they do not take birth again into the mortal world full of miseries and short lived sensory pleasures”.

Aabraham bhuvnaalloka punraa vartinno Arjuna

Mamu petya tu kaunteya punarjanam na vidhyate (16)

Hey Arjuna, you should know that all the people living in the world of the creator and all other worlds are stuck up into the miserable whirlpool of the rebirth but oh son of Kunti! All those who have attained me and have been integrated into my eternal spirit get free from the vicious cycle of rebirth, as I am timeless and all those who are the inhabitants of the Brahma’s world have the limitations of the time and hence they are all temporal”.

Sahastra yuga paryant maharyad brahamaano vidu

Ratrim yug sahastraantaan te ahoraatra vido janaa (17)

The enlightened persons who are aware that a  single day of Brahma  is equivalent to the  four billion years and that the duration of the night also lasts four billion years, such enlightened yogis are familiar with the real meaning of the time and they  are also the knower of the  cycle of the  creation and the destruction “.

Avayaktaa davayakataya sarvaa prabhavantya haraagame

Raatrayaagme praleeyannte tatrai vaavayakata sangayke (18)

“All living beings are born out of the Brahma during the coming on of Brahma’s day, all living entities becoming manifested from the unmanifested state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifested again”.

Bhootgraama sa evaayam bhutvaa bhutvaa praleeyate

Raatrayaagme avasha parth prabhataya haraagame (19)

“ hey parth! The same multitudes of manifested beings come into existence repeatedly at the cycle of the creation and under the control of the creative nature get annihilated and attain obscurity at the cycle of the destruction “.

Parasat smaatu bhaavo anyo avayakto avayaktaat sanaatana

Ya sa sarveshu bhooteshu nashayatasu na vinashayati (20)

´“There exists another   un-manifested transcendental celestial power,  greater than the destructible nature and which is the celestial Supreme Being  that ever remains undiminished and does not cease to exist even when all  manifested creations perish. Such an Eternal Transcendental   Being is beyond all times and periods and is not subjected to any age or the annihilating nature of the time “.

Avayakto akshara ityukta satamaahu parmam gatim

Yam praapaya na nivartante tadhdwam paramam mama (21)

“The un-manifested word of Om is also called the Supreme truth or the supreme abode.  The human beings after attaining this unmanifested supreme truth do not come back to the earth to become part of and get involved into the mundane cycle of birth and death, as the unmanifested   word of Om is my eternal supreme abode of The Supreme Truth”.

Purusha sa para parth   bhaktayaa labhaysatav ananyayaa

Yasyaanta sathaani bhutaani yen saravamidam tatam (22)

“Hey parth! The Supreme Truth in which all beings abide and the Supreme Celestial Power that controls it all and the one who completes this universe, such a supreme abode is achievable by steadfast devotion to me only”.

The lord describes to Arjuna the path that can be undertaken by the ones who do not come back  to the earth  into the whirlpool of the cycle of the life and death and the ones who eventually on the strength of their  steadfast dedication to the Supreme Lord get integrated into the lord and attain emancipation .

Says lord Krishna,

Yatra kaale tavanaavarti maa vritim chaiv yogina

Prayaataa yaanti tam kaalam vakshyaami bharat sharbha (23)

O Arjuna! Now shall describe to you about the different course that can be taken by the yogis to come back on the earth   and take birth as humans, or to not to come back to the earth and get assimilated into the Supreme Truth”.

Agni jyortiraha shukla shanmaasaa utraayanam

Tatra Prayaataa gachaanti braham brahamvido janaa (24)

‘Those persons    who pass away from this world, during the influence of the arrogant fire god, in the daylight  during the propitious moment of the day, during the fortnight of the waxing moon, or during the six months when the sun travels in the north, such persons who owe their devotion to the Supreme Brahma attain the Supreme Truth’.

Dhoomo raatri satithaa Krishnapaksha shanmaasaa dakshinaayanam

Tatr chaandarasam jyoti yorgi praapaya nivartate (25)

“Those of the devoted yogis who depart from this world during the time of the dusk,   during the night, or during the fortnight of the waning moon, or   in those six months when the sun travels in the southern direction, such of the righteous yogis reach   heavens via the celestial moon planet but again   after having attained the fruits of their pious karmas   they come back to the earth for the rebirth into the human form”.

Shukla krishane   gati hayete jagata shaashvata mate

Ekyaa yaatynaavrati manyayaa vartate puna (26)

“The world is familiar with the two eternal paths i.e., the path of the spiritual knowledge and the path of the self enlightenment. By taking to the path of the spiritual knowledge one attains the emancipation from the cycle of the rebirth and reaches the Supreme Truth.  The person, who takes to the other path of the self enlightenment, comes back to the earth and gets reborn as a human being again”.

Naite sruti parth jaananyogi muhayanti kaschana

Tasmaat sarveshu kaaleshu yogyukto bhavaa Arjuna (27)

“This way o! Parth any yogi who has known and understood the essence of both the paths does not get enchanted. That’s why you should be perpetually fixed in your devotion   towards me and should always be searching the ways to reach me and astatine the universal supreme truth”.

Vedeshu yagyeshu tapas u chaiva daaneshu yatpunya phalam pradishtam

Atyeti tatsarvmidam viditavaa yogi param sthaan mupaiti chaadhayam (28)

“Having been enlightened on the essence of attaining Me, the   enlightened yogi goes beyond the attainment of the study of the vedaas, the performing of the sacrifices, observing of the austerities, committing charities and goes to achieve the supreme truth and thereby attain deliverance”.

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